key idea Children who survive bacterial meningitis are at high risk of lifelong disabilities as a result of the infection.
key results In a study of data from England & Wales, Denmark and the US, it was shown that measles infection suppresses the immune system for up to 3 years after infection, increasing the risk of death due to other childhood infections during that time. This means that prevention of measles significantly impacts overall health during critical childhood years.
key idea Use of vaccines decreases the need to use antibiotics to treat disease, thus reducing the opportunity for the development of antimicrobial resistance.
key results Reductions in the number of days that patients received antibiotic therapy have been documented among day-care attendees in Israel who received the 9-valent conjugate vaccine. Children who received vaccine had 10% fewer days of antibiotic usage for upper respiratory tract infections, 47% fewer days of antibiotic usage for lower respiratory tract infections and 20% fewer days of antibiotic usage for otitis media (ear infections) as compared to children who did not receive PCV.
key idea The interactions of childhood diarrhea, pneumonia and malnutrition contribute to a vicious cycle of poor health and delayed growth and development. Immunization can help to improve this cycle.
key results Multiple studies show that “Diarrhea and pneumonia impair children’s growth and that underlying malnutrition is a major risk factor for these conditions.” “Episodes of diarrhea may predispose to pneumonia in undernourished children” and “Immunization against influenza [in mothers] and Streptococcus pneumoniae may improve infant growth.” In addition, “new studies from Bangladesh, Colombia, Ghana and Israel further support the paradigm that malnutrition is a key risk factor for diarrhea and pneumonia.”
key idea Vaccine-preventable diseases such as pneumonia and diarrhea can predispose children to further infections.
key results In a recent review of data from developing countries, researchers found that “episodes of diarrhea may predispose to pneumonia in undernourished children”
key idea Administration of measles vaccine has been found to be related with decrease childhood deaths from other causes, above and beyond the expected direct impact of the vaccine on measles.
key results In a study of data from England & Wales, Denmark and the US, it was shown that measles infection suppresses the immune system for up to 3 years after infection, increasing the risk of death due other childhood infections during that time. This means that prevention of measles significantly impacts overall health during critical childhood years.
key idea The prevention of disease outbreaks can bring additional stability to the national economy as a whole.
key results Researchers modeled the costs, using the UK’s 2004 economy, of potential pandemic flu in the UK. Costs of illness alone ranged between 0.5% and 1.0% of gross domestic product (£8.4bn to £16.8bn) for low fatality scenarios, 3.3% and 4.3% (£55.5bn to £72.3bn) for high fatality scenarios, and larger still for an extreme pandemic. Vaccination with a pre-pandemic vaccine could save 0.13% to 2.3% of gross domestic product (£2.2bn to £38.6bn); a single dose of a matched vaccine could save 0.3% to 4.3% (£5.0bn to £72.3bn); and two doses of a matched vaccine could limit the overall economic impact to about 1% of gross domestic product for all disease scenarios.